If you own a enthusiast or pro level camera body, you’ll find a mode titled ‘C’ on the mode dial. Depending on the camera model, there may be several of these titled ‘C1’, ‘C2’ & so. This mode is known as “Custom Mode/Recall Mode”. Don’t confuse it with “Custom Settings”. This mode is there for users who often need to shoot a particular subject frequently. The gist of this mode is that, it asks users to input their preferred settings & save it, so that the user can recall them anytime in future quickly.
Let me give you an example. I shoot lots of food & still photos, for this I have set the ‘C’ mode on my camera to certain default settings like 2 secs timer, a starting aperture value of f/4, ISO 200 & Shutter-Speed 1/100. So when I need to shoot food, I just select the ‘C’ mode on camera & the camera is ready for shooting. This saves my time as I can concentrate more on the subject I shoot than over the camera. Off-course, the settings you make in this mode can be changed during operation as you normally would.
Let me show you, how to set your settings for this mode. I’ll imagine that I have to shoot a wedding indoors & I’ll have my base settings accordingly.
# First enter the “MANUAL” mode of the camera & make the settings on your camera. These settings need not be absolute correct but thereabouts. Since I want to shoot a wedding indoors, the light will be low. So I select ISO 800, a shutter-speed of 1/100 & aperture f/2.8. I set the Picture Style to ‘Standard’, Metering to Evaluative & Quality to “Small jpeg + Large RAW”.
# Now that I’m happy with my settings, I head over the “Camera User Settings” in the third wrench menu on my Canon EOS 60D. I enter within & select “Register Settings”. It will ask for a confirmation to register camera user settings to “C”. Select OK. It will take a moment to save the settings.
# Now when you turn the model dial to ‘C’, the settings you made will be displayed. You can change them on fly as you’re in field but they will revert back to the once you set(defaults) when you switch off the camera or on the auto power off of the camera.
I absolutely love this custom mode. They really help me in speeding up my shooting. I hope they do the same for you.
Regular users do not have permissions to alter files, however the super user can do any changes to the critical system files. For most of the times, one must avoid logging as a root user but at times one needs to login as a root user itself. Here, a small mistake could potential cause irreversible damage to the system. Take an example you are deleting a file & enter the following;
# rm -rf / etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0:0
Noticed the space after ‘/’? That’s not intentional & it got mistyped in haste. Now, if the root user hits enter without correcting his mistake, it will lead to deletion of the entire root directory. You wouldn’t want that. However there is a simple command which prevents root user from deleting files or directories. You can set it on files or directories which you perceive to be important.
The command sets a certain attribute onto a file. These are special attributes over the regular file permissions. The attribute can be only set & unset by a root user.
# chattr +a filename
Now try doing,
# rm -rf filename
You will get,
rm: cannot remove ‘filename’ : Operation not permitted
You can do same on directories.
# chattr +a directory
This will also have an effect on the subsequent sub-directories in the specified directory. However, with the append(a) option, the file can still be altered using the append command. So to avoid that, use the immutable(i) switch instead of (a).
# chattr +i filename
The file can be now deleted nor written to(cannot be appended too).
To unset any of these attributes, simply use minus(-) along with the attribute you specified & file name/directory name.
# chattr -i filename
# chattr -a /directory/
Set this attribute on critical files & directories and you may avoid a potential doom’s day.
There are times when you need to post the outcome of a particular command(s) from a shell on a forum or somewhere else. It might be for troubleshooting or demonstration. However, copy-paste is not exactly a good option if your shell is filled with tons of information. Not to mention, you would spend a lot of time just selecting the text & then pasting it into a word processor. Wouldn’t life be easy if there would be a script which would gather all the data from a terminal & save it to a file? It does exist.
Before starting to run the command(s) whose output you wish to capture, enter;
$script -a filename
You will get,
[shuttertux@localhost ~]$ script -a filename
Script started, file is filename
Now one can begin entering the required commands. Once done, type;
[shuttertux@localhost ~]$ exit
Script done, file is filename
Now you can view the output file simply by,
Wasn’t that easy? Just remember, the output file is saved in your present working directory.
I’ve often heard photographers complain about they being not able to get good pictures as they are unable to travel to places. Off-course, the complain is a genuine one but not entirely true. The simple & effective solution is to shoot repeatedly in your familiar territory. A good photograph can be made almost anywhere. It can be even made into your own house, on your terrace, in your society’s compound etc.
If you want to shoot around & outside your home, consider visiting a park/monument/open space in your locality(I mention these places so you can make yourself comfortable shooting at first as these places provide ready-made photographic opportunities. Once get familiar enough, you’ll be able to look for frames even on streets, alleys etc). Frequent it with the objective of taking photographs. Go there again & again & again. I can assure you, that the photographic opportunities of a particular place are endless but only limited by your imagination. I’ve made most of my photographs at areas around my home yet many people think they are made at some far away exotic locations. Go out at different times of a day, shoot even if the conditions are unfavorable. If not a good photograph at-least you’ll gather experience of shooting under a particular lighting condition.