Have you encountered the following error when trying to install a package on your system?
” file /usr/lib64/audit from install of glibc-2.16-31.fc18.x86_64 conflicts with file from package audit-2.2.1-2.fc18.x86_64 “
It states a file conflict between the two mentioned packages. There is a simple way to solve this error. Simply install the audit package.
#yum install audit -y
You should not get the error anymore.
Regular users do not have permissions to alter files, however the super user can do any changes to the critical system files. For most of the times, one must avoid logging as a root user but at times one needs to login as a root user itself. Here, a small mistake could potential cause irreversible damage to the system. Take an example you are deleting a file & enter the following;
# rm -rf / etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0:0
Noticed the space after ‘/’? That’s not intentional & it got mistyped in haste. Now, if the root user hits enter without correcting his mistake, it will lead to deletion of the entire root directory. You wouldn’t want that. However there is a simple command which prevents root user from deleting files or directories. You can set it on files or directories which you perceive to be important.
The command sets a certain attribute onto a file. These are special attributes over the regular file permissions. The attribute can be only set & unset by a root user.
# chattr +a filename
Now try doing,
# rm -rf filename
You will get,
rm: cannot remove ‘filename’ : Operation not permitted
You can do same on directories.
# chattr +a directory
This will also have an effect on the subsequent sub-directories in the specified directory. However, with the append(a) option, the file can still be altered using the append command. So to avoid that, use the immutable(i) switch instead of (a).
# chattr +i filename
The file can be now deleted nor written to(cannot be appended too).
To unset any of these attributes, simply use minus(-) along with the attribute you specified & file name/directory name.
# chattr -i filename
# chattr -a /directory/
Set this attribute on critical files & directories and you may avoid a potential doom’s day.
There are times when you need to post the outcome of a particular command(s) from a shell on a forum or somewhere else. It might be for troubleshooting or demonstration. However, copy-paste is not exactly a good option if your shell is filled with tons of information. Not to mention, you would spend a lot of time just selecting the text & then pasting it into a word processor. Wouldn’t life be easy if there would be a script which would gather all the data from a terminal & save it to a file? It does exist.
Before starting to run the command(s) whose output you wish to capture, enter;
$script -a filename
You will get,
[shuttertux@localhost ~]$ script -a filename
Script started, file is filename
Now one can begin entering the required commands. Once done, type;
[shuttertux@localhost ~]$ exit
Script done, file is filename
Now you can view the output file simply by,
Wasn’t that easy? Just remember, the output file is saved in your present working directory.
Star-trail photographs are mind boggling to look at. Its one of the most beautiful vista of nature. However most of the times when it comes to post-processing the photos after shooting a star trail can be a pain. Here is a small GIMP plugin which will help you elevate all that pain & concentrate more on shooting part of star trails. The plugin is known as ‘gimp-startrail-compositor‘. You can download it here.
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Over the time, your operating system tends to generate temporary files which get on accumulating in the temporary directories. This negatively affects the system responsiveness & off-course wastes disk space. Further, there are also other resources like browser caches, thumbnail caches & more which if not cleared from time to time make the system sluggish. An advance user may very well take control & go rectifying each of the above problems. However that would mean more time to clear up each individual thing. Here, steps in to rescue is KDE’s very own utility – Sweeper(Application>Utilities>Sweeper).
As the name suggests, Sweeper is a tiny utility which lets one clear all the unwanted clutter from the system. The interface of sweeper is ridiculously idiot-proof & all the options are self explanatory. Simply check whatever you wish to get rid off from your system & hit “Clean Up”. Sweeper is capable of clearing cookies, temporary files, thumbnail cache, browser cache, favicons, clipboard, recently used document list, recent applications etc.
From time to time, I recommend running Sweeper & letting it do its job. It will ensure you good disk resources & a responsive computer.